All About The Guamuchil Tree (Pithecellobium Dulce)

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The Guamuchil tree, or Pithecellobium dulce, belongs to the Fabaceae family. It is also known by more than thirty names including: rain tree (Albizia saman), Manila tamarind, madras thorn, vilayati ambli (Gujarati), sweet inga, opiuma, pois sucré, payandé, huamúchil, blackbead, yacure, cuauhmochitl (Nahuatl), tetul (Bengali), seema chinta (Telugu) and ganga imli (Hindi).

A full-grown, spiky tree can rise up to fifty feet. Furthermore, a healthy plant produces flowers after two years. Blooming usually takes place during late winters or early springs, while fruits develop between spring and summer. Mature legumes normally show a rosy exterior. They may also show a white, cream, or tan bloom.

A white pulp called aril grows from the plant’s umbilical cord-looking funicle.  A shinier pulp attracts more butterflies, bees, and birds. People peel the pods and eat the sweet and sour white pulp. Beneath the white pulp lie black and shiny seeds. The tree’s fast growth produces many seeds that are spread by birds.

This fast-growing plant originated from Mexico. It was introduced to several tropical places, originally intended to merely provide shading in drylands. It was also planted as ornamental trees on roadsides, hedges, and backyards. Soon, native people, and medical experts discovered its nutritional and medicinal benefits.

Guamuchil Fruit Nutrition & Health Benefits

The sweet and sour Guamuchil fruit is consumed raw. Besides, it may season different dishes or add flavor to juices. In rural Mexico and India, some famous recipes with Guamuchil fruits include kodukukai curry, kodukai puli rasam, and kodukai puli kara kolumbu.

Guamuchil Fruit Tree

Image Source: sparks-mexico.com

The Purdue University Horticulture Department has listed the nutritional content of a 100 gram Guamuchil fruit as follows:

  • 78 kcal,
  • 77.8% water,
  • 3% protein,
  • 0.4% fat,
  • 18.2% carb,
  • 1.2% fiber,
  • 0.6% ash,
  • 13 mg calcium (or 1.3% RDI),
  • 42 mg phosphorous (or 4.2% RDI),
  • 0.5 mg iron (or 2.7% RDI),
  • 19 mg sodium,
  • 222 mg potassium (or 6.3% RDI),
  • 15 mg vitamin A,
  • 0.24 mg thiamin/B1 (or 16.6% RDI),
  • 0.10 mg riboflavin/B2 (or 5.8% RDI),
  • 0.60 mg niacin/B6 (or 3% RDI), and
  • 133 mg vitamin C (or 221% RDI).

The fruit’s nutritional components contribute to one’s health in different ways.  Here are some of them:

  • High levels of Vitamin C help boost the immune system, prevent stroke, lessens phlegm, and fight cancer.
  • B Vitamins contribute to a person’s nerve and brain functioning, hair and skin health, appetite enhancement, as well as cholesterol control.
  • Its calcium content boosts one’s enamel and bones.
  • High amounts of thiamine help convert sugar into energy. This helps in maintaining a healthy stress level.
  • Its Phosphorous content help restore one’s body.
  • Its Iron content helps fight fatigue and treat anemia.

The seeds contain saponins, steroids, glycosides, lipids, phospholipids, polysaccharides and glycolipids. A greenish oil may be extracted from the seeds for its protein content. Moreover, it can also be used to make soaps.

Despite its benefits, however, pregnant women should avoid consuming the Guamuchil fruit because of its abortifacient property. Regular consumers should also note that mild throat irritations may be caused by white-colored Manila Tamarinds.

Guamuchil Fruit Medicinal Properties

In 2012, a natural product research reported that the Guamuchil plant can be safely consumed. It does not have allergens.  People have also reported using the Guamuchil plant for its medicinal purposes. Specific medicinal properties include the following:

Antibacterial and Anti-Inflammatory Properties

Fresh flowers were reported to contain the antibacterial and anti-inflammatory glycoside quercitin. In particular, flowers helped cure pain, fever, burns, infections, and swelling.

As astringents, the plant’s bark and leaves helped treat acne and mild skin irritations.  Some have used the plant’s pulp to control and stop the bleeding of wounds. When applied like plasters, the leaves have treated pain and venereal sores.

Others take the bark extract to cure chronic diarrhea, fever, constipation, dysentery (or a gastroenteritis characterized by a bloody stool), liver problems caused by oxidative stress, sores, bronchitis, eye inflammation, spleen issues, hemorrhages, and dermatitis.

Finally, leaf extracts have been used to treat earaches, depression, muscle tension, mouth ulcers, toothaches, gun problems, leprosy, and larvicide.

Antioxidant or Phenolics Property

In 2011, evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine experts discussed liver disease-fighting ability of antioxidants found in the Guamuchil fruit.

In another study, scientists noticed that leaf extracts contain phenolics with flavonoids. These free radical scavengers help in cleansing one’s body from food toxins.

Anti-inflammatory Triterpene Property

The saponin content of the plant seeds shows anti-inflammatory properties.

Antimicrobial and Anti-tuberculosis Properties

The alcoholic and hexane bark extract has shown a notable antimicrobial action against certain pathogens of mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Anti-Diabetic Property

The Guamuchil leaf extract has shown anti-diabetic activity in a group of test subjects studied.

Free Radical Scavenging and Anti-Ulcer Properties

In 2012, the Journal of Ethnopharmacology published a study reporting the Guamuchil fruit extracts’ higher anti-ulcer benefits than the standard omeprazole drug. Moreover, this happens because of the fruit’s free radical properties.

Very Low Toxicity

A study has detected very low amounts of toxicity on the fruit, not causing abnormalities on the test subjects’ overall health.

Pithecellobium Dulce Tree

Image Source: tropical.theferns.info

Guamuchil Tree Cultivation

A gardener must note several factors when planting a Guamuchil tree:

  • Environment and Soil Condition – the Guamuchil tree may healthily grow in different tropical and subtropical areas. It can withstand environments with over 40°C of heat, as well as below 5°C of coolness. The soil, however, shouldn’t be cold and wet. Moreover, the soil must have a ph of 6.6 to 7.5.
  • Deep and well-drained soils are appropriate for Guamuchil trees. But people can also plant it on rocky limestones, clays, sands, as well as high water-table soils.
  • Sun Exposure and Salinity – a Guamichil tree requires full sun exposure. It can tolerate salinity.
  • Spiky Surfaces – the tree’s branches contain sharp spines and skin-irritating surfaces.
  • Flower Grouping – when planting, you need to group the small flowers in dense, small, and spherical heads. Each group may comprise of twenty to thirty flowers. Each group should also measure 7-12 mm in diameter.
  • Seeds Storage – you can store the seeds within six months. You also need to safeguard them from insects.
  • Regeneration Control – to prevent plant regeneration, you can put glyphosate on stumps. You may also use herbicide. This can control seedlings and small plants.
  • Pests and Diseases – though usually negligible, diseases can infect leaf spots. Finally, pests can also cause defoliation. The thorn bug is an example of a common plant insect.


Finally, the Guamuchil tree is a relatively easy-to-cultivate and fast-growing plant. The plant has also shown several nutritional and medicinal effects. Gardeners, however, should be cautious of its spiny surfaces. Consumers should also be aware of its negative effects and know how to use it safely.

Jonathan E. Bass

Graduated from Middle Tennessee State University. I am currently a gardener. I have a small garden behind my house. I love it.

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